Kolb states that his process of experiential learning includes four steps: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation . However, in modern times, one of the most influential proponents of reflective practice has been David Kolb (Dennison, 2009). In figure 4, an example of a nurse’s reflective cycle is presented. It’s where we try new things, get stuck in and step out of our comfort zone. Active experimentation - Leaping on the bike and have a go at it. Learning is like breathing; a lifelong process of taking in and putting out. Abstract conceptualization - Understanding the theory and having a clear grasp of the biking concept. Applied reflective practice in medicine and anaesthesiology. Kolb believes that as we learn something we go through a learning cycle. Kolb, D (1984). Kolb introduced the 4-part Learning Cycle to explain how people learn from experience, and the Learning Styles Inventory that helps people identify which strategies they tend to use when confronting learning tasks. Additionally, Kolb’s model encourages users to take an in-depth, detailed, and typically retrospective assessment of their cognitions and behaviours for the purposes of self-development. Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle now forms the heart of many training and learning events. Conceptualisation is then used to catalyse the reflective process, and insights are used to formulate ‘active experimentation’. google_ad_slot = "6804927773"; Turesky, E. & Wood, D. (2010). Thus, it can be said that Kolb’s theory is an experiential learning theory which prioritises the importance of reflection (Dennison, 2009). It can be said that healthcare providers have an ethical and legal imperative to ensure that nursing practitioners engage in reflective practice since this will help to “foster improvements in practice and services”, and ensure that the public receives the best level of care possible (NMC, 2019, n.p.). David Kolb. Below, a template for completing Kolb’s model of reflection is provided. Thus, if engaging with newer material, this should be cited accordingly. More particularly, it is evident to see how Kolb’s model encourages learners to adopt a thorough and carefully considered reflective approach. This means that it can be a particularly effective model for people who are being introduced to reflective practice for the first time since it does not necessarily require the user to reflect whilst ‘in action’ (Turesky & Wood, 2010). Kolb’s Learning Styles are split into four general types including diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator with two dimensions. Kolb introduced the 4-part Learning Cycle to explain how people learn from experience, and the Learning Styles Inventory that helps people identify which strategies they tend to use when confronting learning tasks. US: EBLS Press. If reflecting on a positive experience, how will I ensure that I create similar positive outcomes in the future? 1). In addition, Kolb (1999) claims that concrete experience and abstract conceptualization reflect right-brain and left-brain thinking respectively. Once they have drawn these conclusions, the individual t… The Gibbs Cycle, however, is more often used by the health-care industry. Thus, it can be said that Kolb’s theory is an experiential learning … 9 - 10 MILL LANE As mentioned, Kolb’s reflective model helps to facilitate learning, hence the main reason for employing this model is to facilitate personal and/or professional development and avoid remaining stagnant (Dennison, 2009). Any model of reflection can be used to facilitate personal or professional growth, primarily because ‘reflection’ places the user in the ‘driving seat’ and encourages them to facilitate their own development (DunnGalvin et al., 2019). Kolb - along with Piaget and Dewey - have been attributed for promoting “learner-centred pedagogy” as opposed to teacher-led education, thus Kolb’s model of reflection has been important for helping to reshape the dynamics of modern education (Dennison, 2009, n.p.). They learn best by observing and gathering information, avoiding conflict when possible. Looks for the meaning of things. There are some empirical studies supporting the value of reflective practice, but not many supporting the value of Kolb’s model specifically (Dennison, 2009). NMC (2019). The impact of reflective practice on teacher candidates’ learning. Namely, the 4-stage model helps users to appreciate the links between experiences, feelings, thoughts, and behaviours – thus providing a holistic appreciation of the learning experience (Kolb & Kolb, 2017). In this respect, Kolb's model differs from others since it offers both a way to understand individual learning styles, which he named the "Learning Styles Inventory" (LSI), and also an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to all learners. Generally speaking, it is advisable for learners to take regular breaks and not rush the reflective process (UOL, 2018). Reflective observation - Thinking about what you just performed. Schon introduced three major concepts to the field of learning theory: Double-Loop Learning, The Learning Society and Reflection-in-Action. Moreover, the reflection process itself is quite individualistic in focus (it does not require the learner to ask for others’ feedback); thus, the results could be too one-sided. Kolb’s (1984) model assumes that there are four stages to the experiential learning cycle (see below). SPSS, EViews, RStudio, Minitab, etc.) Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. While the Kolb Cycle can be applied to educational settings, the Gibbs Cycle develops the experiential learning theory further by relating teaching methods to Kolb's model. Kolb D. (1984). Indeed, Kolb’s learning theory (1984) states that reflective practice is necessary to facilitate genuine learning and development. The full reference for this book is provided below and should be placed in the reference list of any reflective report. The Kolb Learning Style Model is divided into four different styles which derive from a four stage learning cycle. Next, the individual reflects on these observations and begins to build a general theory of what this information might mean. Boston: Hay Group. Moreover, Kolb (1984) argued that it is our ability to actively reflect on our experiences which facilitates our learning and development. ... Pros and Cons of Experiential Learning . According to Kolb, concrete experience provides information that serves as a basis for reflection. Indeed, in 2019, the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) released a statement advising that, to be registered, all nursing practitioners should be involved in regular reflective practice. Kolb's model (1984) takes things a step further. www.LSRC.ac.uk: Learning and Skills Research Centre. The essay then proceeded to explain the importance of reflective practice for certain professions, particularly nursing. Moreover, due to its individualistic focus, it empowers users to feel confident in their ability to ‘manage’ their own development (Dennison, 2009). Inside Higher Ed published an opinion piece that argued that experiential learning is not beneficial to students and in fact, takes them away from classes where they could gain more knowledge about their chosen fields. As the University of Gloucestershire points out, in the conceptualisation and experimentation stages, Gibbs suggests action plans and learning contracts. Advantages and Cons of Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory Advantages An important feature of Kolb’s theory is that the different stages are associated with distinct learning styles. Concrete experience describes the hands-on personal experiences that we learn from. Finally, a template for completing Kolb’s reflective cycle and an example were provided. I don’t buy the author’s argument. ALTON, HANTS UOL (2018). The theory embraces the idea that we change as a result of experience, reflection, conceptualisation and experimentation. To explore this theory in more detail, this page will begin by describing Kolb’s (1984) reflective cycle, particularly as it relates to nursing practice. (1969/18). These four modes of learning are often portrayed as a cycle. Then, at the conceptualisation stage, they recognised that this had probably led to the patient’s low mood, as the patient may have felt overlooked and unimportant. They are … Peter Honey and Alan Mumford (1986) identify four distinct learning styles or preferences – and many of us tend to follow one or two of these. This ensures that all preferred learning styles are used as you step through the model. Kolb, A. From the Australian Educational Leader Volume 40, Issue 3 2018. thinking and then transform it again through their actions to change the world. In the next step, the learner forms abstract concepts and generalizations based on their hypothesis. The learning cycle can be a rubric for holistic, authentic assessment. London: Basic Books. 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